How to make surface coverage in wireless sensor network?

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Coverage is a fundamental problem in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). Existing studies on this topic focus on 2D ideal plane coverage and 3D full space coverage. The 3D surface of a targeted Field of Interest is complex in many real world applications. In surface coverage, the targeted Field of Interest is a complex surface in 3D space and sensors can be deployed only on the surface. We show that existing 2D plane coverage is merely a special case of surface coverage. Simulations point out that existing sensor deployment schemes for a 2D plane cannot be directly applied to surface coverage cases.

Sensor networks consist of autonomous nodes with limited battery and ofbase stations with theoretical infinite energy. Nodes can be sleep to extend the lifespan of the network without compromising neither area coverage nor network connectivity. The area coverage problem with equal sensing and communicating radii. The goal is to minimize the number of active sensorsinvolved in coverage task, while computing a connected set able to report to monitoring stations. Our solution is fully localized, and each sensor is able to make decision on whether to sleep or to be active based on two messages sent by each sensor.

The first message is a “hello” message to gather position of all neighboring nodes. Then each node computes its own relay area dominating set, by taking the furthest neighbor as the first node, and then adding neighbors farthest to the isobar center of already selected neighbors, until the area covered by neighbors is fully covered. The second message broadcasts this relay set to neighbors. Each node decides to be active if it has highest priority among its neighbors or is a relay node for its neighbor with the highest priority.

A wireless sensor network (WSN) is a "smart" system, which consists of numerous small, low-powered, self organizing sensor nodes that havecommunication and computation capabilities. The sensor nodes of networks can be used to complete tasks assigned according to the application environment in applications related to the military, environmental monitoring, health care, and so on. However, the computation power and communication capacity of sensor nodes within the network are often limited by the environment.

The sensor network always has some special characteristics such as the dense distribution of sensor nodes, frequently changing topology, multi hopcommunication mode, and so on. To manage the sensor network more effectively and ensure a better quality of network service, we should consider the coverage issue of networks, which refers to the method of deployment of nodes to achieve better detection. Coverage reflectsnetworks "perceived quality of service" and provides a more reliableguarantee to monitor and control the sensor networks.

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